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Captions to the figures [link] Liste des illustrations Table 1. Direct radiocarbon ages and stable isotopes for the Oase, Muierii and Cioclovina human remains. For detailed chemistry, see Trinkaus et al.
Human stable isotope values for Late Pleistocene European humans [link] Fig. Human stable isotopes black circles from the Peştera cu Oase O1Peştera Muierii M1, M2 and Peştera Cioclovina C1plotted against carnivores gray diamonds and herbivores gray triangles from the first two sites [link] Texte intégral 1.
Valorile δ13C sunt similare cu cele ale populaţiilor din Pleistocenul superior, în vreme ce valorile dating bp indică o dietă perponderent carnivoră.
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Aportul de carne în cazurile studiate este printre cele mai ridicate din Paleoliticul superior mijlociu, şi în acelaşi timp mult mai însemnat decât al neandertalilor din Paleoliticul mijlociu şi de la începutul Paleoliticului superior vechi.
Aceste date arată că primii oamenii moderni din această regiune au inclus în dietă o gamă mai variată de animale, deşi datele arheologice şi morfologia funcţională a scheletelor umane din vestul şi estul Europei indică schimbări minore în exploatarea faunei pentru Dating bp mijlociu şi Paleoliticul superior vechi.
Introduction Insight into the dietary spectra of Late Pleistocene humans, at least in Europe, is primarily based on the associated faunal remains, especially for assemblages in which the primary accumulating agent appears to have been humans, organic preservation is good, and the excavation has been sufficient to permit detailed zooarcheological analysis. As a result, stable isotope analysis of human and faunal remains from the Late Pleistocene has been increasingly undertaken to provide further insight into Late Pleistocene human dietary spectra, especially for well-dated and in dating bp cases, directly-dated human remains.
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The Romanian human remains are, however, approached in time by the probably early Gravettian remains from Cro-Magnon and Paviland Henry-Gambier ; Jacobi and Higham The oldest of these remains, from the Peştera cu Oase Anina, Caraş-Severin at ~ 35 ka 14C BP, were water-transported surface finds within a karstic system that served primarily as a hibernation locale for large cave bear Ursus spelaeus with fossil and dating bp evidence dating bp some wolf Canis lupus activity Zilhão et al.
There are no archeological remains or other evidence of Pleistocene human activity within the cave system, and the human fossils appear to be secondary intrusions into the system. The isotopic data Table 1 derive from the direct 14C dating of the Oase 1 mandible Trinkaus et al. Although there is evidence for an earlier Upper Paleolithic occupation of the adjacent Galeria Principală and especially Middle Paleolithic activity in both galleries, the site contains an abundance of U.
Given the dating bp of the cave system as a carnivore den, partial excavation recovery of faunal remains, and uncertainties regarding the association of the human remains with specific archeological assemblages, the only dietary data available for the Muierii humans derives from their stable isotope values, also obtained as part of the 14C dating process. The cranium was found during phosphate mining, and its original position in the cave is unknown.
Although Middle Paleolithic and Early Upper Paleolithic assemblages have been found in the cave Dobrescuthe cave served principally as a hibernation den for U.
The human fossil is therefore without stratigraphic, paleontological or archeological context cf.
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Dating bp a number of lines of research, including empirical observations and controlled experiments on living organisms, it has been determined that the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in mammal bone collagen reflect dating bp isotope ratios of dietary protein consumed over the last years of the life of that mammal Wild et al.
There is variation between sites, and ideally one should evaluate human δ15N values with respect to values from animals of known diet from the same levels of the same sites, something that is not always possible e. Such 4. However, dietarily significant differences in δ15N values, given within dating bp variation and within dietary category variation, should mitigate intersite variation in values.
Carbon isotope ratios δ13C do not change, or change only slightly, between trophic levels, and they therefore reflect variation in plant carbon isotopes C3 versus C4 plants, with the former having lower or more negative δ13C valuesaccess to marine resources which have higher δ13C valuesand possibly climate van Klinken et al. In Late Pleistocene Europe, C4 plants were not present, so δ13C variation should reflect minor paleoecological differences and, to some extent, access to marine resources Richards ; Pettitt et al.
The dates and available chemistry have been published previously Trinkaus et al.
Oase 1 sample derives from the posteroinferior mandibular corpus. The Muierii 1 sample is from the zygomatic bone, and the Muierii 2 one is from the squamous temporal.
Erik Trinkaus J. Despite stratigraphic incertainties, the samples sample of Pleistocene faunal remains Nicolăescu- should date from the earlier Upper Paleolithic of this portion of Plopşor, ; Daicoviciu et al. These dates Paleolithic archeological remains continue to therefore imply that the Pleistocene human occupation of the site consists of a relatively late Early Upper Paleolithic or pertain to discussions of the Paleolithic of Romania dating bp early Middle Upper Paleolithic and a fairly late Middle especially of the Middle Paleolithic and the early Paleolithic.
The Cioclovina 1 sample is from a detached portion of the inferior occipital bone. The relevant faunal remains from Oase, the wolf C. The moose Alces alces sample from Muierii an M1 is radiometrically the same age as the human remains, but the cave lion Panthera spelaea is older Soficaru et dating bp. The other fauna providing stable isotopes from Oase and Muierii, and all of the fauna providing such data from Cioclovina, are cave bears Richards et al.
Cave bears, as with modern brown bears Mowat and Heardappear to have potentially broad dietary spectra Richards et al. Comparative Late Pleistocene human stable isotope values derive from published analyses of European late archaic Neandertal and early dating bp Early and Middle Upper Paleolithic humans, many of which were generated in the context of direct AMS radiocarbon dating of the human remains Table 2.
Datarea radiocarbonată a fost inventată la sfârșitul aniloriar în multe decenii de după aceea, arheologii au dating bp fluturări în curba radiocarbonului, deoarece s-a constatat că carbonul atmosferic fluctuează în timp. Datarea cu radiocarbon este unul dintre cele mai cunoscute instrumente de datare arheologică disponibile oamenilor de știință și majoritatea oamenilor au auzit cel puțin despre asta. Dar dating bp o mulțime de concepții greșite despre modul în care funcționează radiocarbonul și cât de fiabilă este o tehnică; acest articol va încerca să le clarifice. Cum funcționează radiocarbonul? Toate ființele vii schimbă gazul Carbon 14 prescurtat C14, 14C și, cel mai adesea, 14C cu mediul înconjurător - animalele și plantele schimbă carbonul 14 cu atmosfera, în timp ce peștii și coralii schimbă carbonul dizolvat 14C în apa mării și a lacului.
In cases in which specimens have been redated e. Variation in values from repeated measures of the same specimens and from different sample preparation protocols tend to be modest, close to ± 1.
Most of the human and faunal data derive from fully dating bp bone. However, four of the specimens are immature the Middle Upper Paleolithic Kostenki 4 and Sunghir 2 and 3 late juveniles and the Neandertal Engis 2 infant and one the Jonzac 1 Neandertal is a premolar root.
In addition, among the comparative faunal remains, the Peştera Muieri A. It appears that nursing immature individuals should be considered to be a trophic level higher than adults due to lactation. Euro latin datând dating bp result, bone or dentin formed postnatally and prior to weaning may have δ15N values a few per mil higher than that of the mother, depending on the duration of nursing and the degree to which the diet of the infant is supplemented with other foods Jenkins et al.
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This should not pose a problem for the bone samples from the older juvenile Kostenki and Sunghir remains, nor for the Jonzac premolar given late juvenile root formation for human premolars Smith However, the Engis 2 δ15N value of Given the non-parametric nature of the stable isotope distributions, sample comparisons are made using Wilcoxon P-values. Significance levels dating bp adjusted using a sequentially reductive multiple comparison corrections within sets of tests Proschan and Waclawiw This is due in part to the high values for Arene Candide 1 and La Rochette 1 and the low values for Feldhofer 1 and 2.
The Arene Candide 1 δ13C value, as well as the slightly lower Paviland 1 one, are apparently due to the consumption of significant amounts of maritime resources Richards ; Pettitt et al.
It is not clear why Feldhofer 1 and 2 have very low δ13C values, but they are close to those of cervids from the same site Richards and Schmitz The dating bp Romanian early modern humans are in the middle of the faunal range in dating bp values, but they are at the top of the range and above the carnivores in δ15N.
When considered among other Late Pleistocene humans Fig. The very high δ15N Early Upper Paleolithic value is provided by Kostenki 8, an undescribed tibia and fibula dated to ~ Discussion The modest shift in δ15N values between the Neandertal and Middle Upper Paleolithic samples, in combination with dating bp generally higher more dating bp δ13C values, has been attributed to a broader food spectrum and a greater reliance on aquatic resources with their longer food chains among some of the Middle Upper Paleolithic populations Richards et al.
The growing evidence for some degree of maritime resource exploitation among Neandertals Stiner, ; Stringer et al. The addition of data from dating bp earliest modern humans in Europe, now represented isotopically by those from Oase, Muierii and Cioclovina, as well as the undescribed Kostenki 8 specimen, extends any isotopic contrasts further back in the Upper Paleolithic.
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At the same time, the available archeological and human paleontological evidence does not imply a major dietary difference between Neandertals and Early Upper Paleolithic modern humans. There is archeological evidence for improved weaponry in the Aurignacian Knecht, ; Liolios, ; Bolus and Conard,and similar evidence for effective spears is known from the Galeria 6.
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Yet, Aurignacian faunal assemblages, to the extent that they have been appropriately analyzed zooarcheologically albeit not in southeastern Europe dating bp cf. In addition, functional analyses of the few known Early Upper Paleolithic human upper limb remains including the Muierii 1 scapula show little of the anatomical change associated with habitual spear throwing Trinkaus et al.
The Neandertal data derive from central and western Europe, whereas the Early Upper Paleolithic data are all eastern European Tables 1 and 2.
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Yet, the Middle Upper Paleolithic dating bp sample derives from sites across Europe, and the few herbivore and carnivore isotopic values for Peştera cu Oase and Peştera Muierii are similar to those for western European Late Pleistocene mammals.
Clearly, more sampling of both Early Upper Paleolithic and preceding humans in diverse ecozones of Europe is needed to resolve this isotopic contrast, in addition to zooarcheological data from across Europe and including species other than ungulates. Conclusion The addition of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic data for four Early Upper Paleolithic modern humans from Dating bp adds significantly to our dietary record for the European transitional period from Middle Paleolithic to Middle Upper Paleolithic and from Neandertals to early modern humans.
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However, current archeological analyses suggest little dietary change from the Middle Paleolithic through the Early Upper Paleolithic, turning this isotopic insight into hypotheses to be, hopefully, tested against additional isotopic and faunal data.
Povara, C. Petrea, M. Fifor, F. Ridiche and A. Popescu provided access to the Muierii human remains, and T. Neagu provided access to the Cioclovina fossil. Lister and M. Breda helped identify the Alces molar.
To all of them we are grateful. Table 1 Direct radiocarbon ages and stable isotopes for the Oase, Muierii and Cioclovina human remains.
Trinkaus et al. Anikovich, A. Sinitsyn, J. Hoffecker, V. Holliday, V. Popov, S. Lisitsyn, S. Forman, G. Levkovskaya, G. Pospelova, I. Burova, P.